Jayan Stephen, Rajamohanan K


Pediatric urolithiasis is an important kidney disorder encountered in clinical practice. There has been considerable regional variability in the reported incidences of urolithiasis. Also, there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that the overall incidence of pediatric urolithiasis is increasing. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the various aspects of epidemiological data, clinical spectrum related to pediatric stones. A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with epidemiology and clinical features of pediatric urolithiasis such as flank pain, restlessness, hematuria, vomiting, sweating, irritability, features of uti, passage of stones in urine, penile edema, enuresis and anorexia in pediatric stone diseases. The results revealed varying descriptives of clinical spectrum in minor age groups. The body of available literature reveals the gravity of rarely encountered condition pediatric urolithiasis in various regions with debilitating clinical spectrum with idiopathic etiologies and known etiologies; which spearheads further research.


Pediatric urolithiasis; Clinical presentation; Epidemiology

Full Text:



Sharma AP, Filler G. Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis. Indian J Urol. 2010;26(4):516–22.

Mishra SK, Ganpule A, Manohar T, Desai MR. Surgical management of pediatric urolithiasis. Indian J Urol. 2007;23(4):428–34.

Seema L. Jawalekar, Vasant T, Anil B: Effect of Dietary habbit & fluid intake in patients with urolithiasis; Annals of Biological Research, 2013, 4 (1):246-251.

Singh PP, Singh LB, Prasad SN, Singh MG. Urolithiasis in Manipur (north eastern region of India). Incidence and chemical composition of stones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1978 Sep 1;31(9):1519–25.

Taralekar SV, Sharma N. Evaluation of Clinical and Chemical Profile of Patients with Urolithiasis in Pune, India. [cited 2017 Feb 1]; Available from:

Marickar YMF. Epidemiology of Stone Disease in Kerala, South India. In: Talati JJ, Tiselius H-G, Albala DM, YE Z, editors. Urolithiasis [Internet]. Springer London; 2012 [cited 2017 Feb 1]. p. 47–51. Available from:

Eggermann T. Review: genetics of urolithiasis. [cited 2017 Feb 1]; Available from:

Trinchieri A, Lizzano R, Marchesotti F, Zanetti G (2006) Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers. Urology Research 34:1–7.

Rizvi SA, Naqvi AA, Hussain Z, Hashmi A, Hussain M, ZafarMN, Sultan S, Mehdi H (2002) Pediatric urolithiasis: developing nation perspectives. Journal of Urology 168:1522–1525.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ (1993) A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. New England Journal of Medicine 328:833–838.

Lemann J. Urinary Calcium Excretion and Net Acid Excretion: Effects of Dietary Protein, Carbohydrate and Calories. In: Schwille PO, Smith LH, Robertson WG, Vahlensieck W, editors. Urolithiasis and Related Clinical Research [Internet]. Springer US; 1985 [cited 2017 Feb 1]. p. 53–60. Available from:

Siener R, Glatz S, Nicolay C, Hesse A (2004) the role of overweight and obesity in calcium oxalate stone formation. Obesity Research 12:106–113.

Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC (2005) Obesity, weight gain, and the risk of kidney stones. JAMA 293:455–462.

Kerstetter J, Caballero B, OBrien K, Wurtman R, Allen L (1991) Mineral homeostasis in obesity: effects of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Metabolism 40:707–713.

Sternberg K, Greenfield SP, Williot P, Wan J (2005) Pediatric stone disease: an evolving experience. Journal of Urology 174:1711–1714.

Urolithiasis With Topiramate in Nonambulatory Children and Young Adults - Pediatric Neurology [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Feb 1]. Available from: (08)00588-2/abstract.

Current medical treatment in pediatric urolithiasis [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Feb 1]. Available from:

Pediatric urolithiasis : Current Opinion in Urology [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Feb 1]. Available from:

Mbibu HN. Philip M. Mshelbwala. [Cited 2017 Feb 1]; Available from:

Amancio L, Fedrizzi M, Bresolin NL, Penido MGMG, Amancio L, Fedrizzi M, et al. Pediatric urolithiasis: experience at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia. 2016 Mar;38(1):90–8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.