Jayan Stephen, Rajamohanan K


Pediatric urolithiasis is an important kidney disorder encountered in clinical practice. There has been considerable regional variability in the reported incidences of urolithiasis. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the various aspects of metabolic and morphological abnormalities related to kidney stones in age group less than 18 years. A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with metabolic and morphological abnormalities portrayed in urolithiasis; most common among the above said abnormalities are; Obstruction of ureteropelvic junction, Ureteral strictures, Horseshoe kidneys, Malrotated kidneys, Narrow calyx neck, Calyx diverticula, Medullary sponge kidney disease, Invasive surgical procedures leading to scar tissue; Metabolic anomalies such as Hypercalciuria, Hypocitraturia, Hyperoxaluria, Hyperuricosuria, Hyperphosphaturia and Cystinuria. The results revealed varying descriptives of metabolic and morphological abnormalities in minor age groups. The body of available literature reveals the gravity of rarely encountered condition pediatric urolithiasis in various regions with debilitating metabolic and morphological abnormalities with idiopathic etiologies and known etiologies; which spearheads further research.


Pediatric urolithiasis; metabolic abnormalities; morphological anomalies; Epidemiology

Full Text:



Pediatric Urolithiasis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology. 2017 Jun 21 [cited 2018 Mar 5]; Available from:

Diagnosis and management of hypercalciuria in children : Current Opinion in Pediatrics [Internet]. [cited 2018 Mar 5]. Available from:

Reference values for urinary calcium excretion and screening for hypercalciuria in children and adolescents | Springer for Research & Development [Internet]. [cited 2018 Mar 5]. Available from:

Ozokutan BH, Küçükaydin M, Gündüz Z, Kabaklioğlu M, Okur H, Turan C. Urolithiasis in childhood. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000 Jan 1;16(1–2):60–3.

Idiopathic hypercalciuria: Association with isolated hematuria and risk for urolithiasis in children - Kidney International [Internet]. [cited 2018 Mar 5]. Available from:

Alon US, Zimmerman H, Alon M. Evaluation and treatment of pediatric idiopathic urolithiasis—revisited. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004 May 1;19(5):516–20.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension - Primary Hyperoxaluria [Internet]. Mayo Clinic. [cited 2018 Mar 5]. Available from:

Genetic testing for Hyperoxaluria [Internet]. Blueprint Genetics. [cited 2018 Mar 5]. Available from:

Monico CG, Rossetti S, Belostotsky R, Cogal AG, Herges RM, Seide BM, et al. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type III Gene HOGA1 (Formerly DHDPSL) as a Possible Risk Factor for Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis. CJASN. 2011 Sep 1;6(9):2289–95.

Milliner DS, Murphy ME. Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1993 Mar 1;68(3):241–8.

Rizvi SAH, Naqvi SAA, Hussain Z, Hashmi A, Hussain M, Zafar MN, et al. Pediatric Urolithiasis: Developing Nation Perspectives. The Journal of Urology. 2002 Oct 1;168(4, Part 1):1522–5.

Sharma AP, Filler G. Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis. Indian J Urol. 2010;26(4):516–22.

Koide T. [Hyperuricosuria and urolithiasis]. Nihon Rinsho. 1996 Dec;54(12):3273–6. 41

Grover PK, Ryall RL, Marshall VR. Effect of Urate on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization in Human Urine: Evidence for a Promotory Role of Hyperuricosuria in Urolithiasis. Clinical Science. 1990 Jul 1;79(1):9–15.

Dursun I, Poyrazoglu HM, Dusunsel R, Gunduz Z, Gurgoze MK, Demirci D, et al. Pediatric urolithiasis: an 8-year experience of single centre. Int Urol Nephrol. 2008 Mar 1;40(1):3–9.

Hypocitraturia: Overview of Hypocitraturia, Importance of Citrate, Risk Factors in Hypocitraturia. 2017 Sep 20 [cited 2018 Mar 5]; Available from:

Zuckerman JM, Assimos DG. Hypocitraturia: Pathophysiology and Medical Management. Rev Urol. 2009;11(3):134–44.

Tekin A, Tekgul S, Atsu N, Sahin A, Ozen H, Bakkaloglu M. A study of the etiology of idiopathic calcium urolithiasis in children: hypocitruria is the most important risk factor. The Journal of Urology. 2000 Jul 1;164(1):162–5.

VanDervoort K, Wiesen J, Frank R, Vento S, Crosby V, Chandra M, et al. Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients: A Single Center Study of Incidence, Clinical Presentation and Outcome. The Journal of Urology. 2007 Jun 1;177(6):2300–5.


  • There are currently no refbacks.