Nagi ALHaj, Faheem Al-Mughales, Abdul Baki A. Al- Robasi


Back ground and Objective: Pertussis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide in spite of the availability of a good protected vaccine. The incidence or prevalence rate among children or adults in Yemen are unknown. To determine the level of IgG antibodies of Bordetella pertussis. Methods: Blood samples were collected from participated military recruits and commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay was used. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 188 military recruits, between March and October 2013.Results: The prevalence of B. pertussis protective rate among different age groups of military recruits was 92.6%. The highest rate of antibodies 100% was among age group below 20 years followed with 96.3% for >35 years and the lowest protective rate was 89.5%o for age group 25-29 years old. 92.9% protective rate for age group 30-34 years. While the seronegative rate was 7.4% among all age group. Meanwhile, the levels of B. pertussis IgG antibodies were 38.8% who had IgG antibodies level between 1.51-1.99 IU/ml. Conclusions. The findings of this study concluded that the Yemeni military recruits were not enough immunized to pertussis and with confirmed of low awareness about vaccination and medical history related to pertussis infection particularly among this high-risk of Yemeni community, therefore the routine a cellular booster vaccination of adults is a key way to indirectly protect infants and community.


Bordetella pertussis, Humoral, Antibodies, ELISA, Yemen

Full Text:



Guiso N ( 2013a). Bordetella pertussis: Why is it still circulating? J Infect;68(Suppl 1):S119–24

Hallander HO (1999). Microbiological and serological diagnosis of pertussis. Clin Infect Dis;28(Suppl 2):S99–106.

Guiso N ( 2013b). How to fight pertussis? Ther Adv Vaccines;1:59–66.

Jenkinson D (1988). Duration of effectiveness of pertussis vaccine: evidence from a 10 year community study. Br Med J;296:612–14.

Simon AK., McMichael A., Hollander GA (2015). Evolution of the immune system in humans from infancy to old age. Proc Biol Sci, 282 (1821), pp. 20143085.

Campbell P, McIntyre P, Quinn H, Hueston L, Gilbert GL, McVernon J (2012). Increased Population Prevalence of Low Pertussis Toxin Antibody Levels in Young Children Preceding a Record Pertussis Epidemic in Australia. PLoS ONE7(4): e35874.

Bowden KE, Williams MM, Cassiday PK, Milton A, Pawloski L, Harrison M, Martin SW, Meyer S, Qin X, DeBolt C, Tasslimi A, Syed N, Sorrell R, Tran M, Hiatt B, Tondella ML. 2014. Molecular epidemiology of the pertussis epidemic in Washington State in 2012. J Clin Microbiol 52:3549 –3557.

Sealey KL, Harris SR, Fry NK, et al.(2014). Genomic analysis of isolates from the UK 2012 pertussis outbreak reveals that vaccine antigen genes are unusually fast evolving. J Infect Dis;212:294–301.

Bettiol S, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A .(2010). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough". Cochrane Database System Review (1): 3257.

World Health Organization. (2010). Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record,; 85: 385–400.

Izadi M, Afsharpaiman S, Jonaidi Jafari N, Ranjbar R, Gooya MM, Robat Sarpooshi J. (2011).Immunization status of Iranian military recruits against Bordetella pertussis infection (whooping cough). J Infect Dev Ctries; 5(3):224-226

Wilder-Smith A, Ng S, Earnest A. (2006): Seroepidemiology of Pertussis in the Adult Population of Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 35(11):780-782.

World Health Organization.(2005). Pertussis Vaccines WHO Position Paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record,; 80: 29-40.

Mattoo S, Cherry JD.(2005). Molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of respiratory infections due to Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella subspecies. Clin Microbiol Rev; 18: 326-382.

Miyashita N, Fukano H, Yoshida K, Niki Y, Matsushima T. (2003).Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in adult patients with persistent cough. J Med Microbiol; 52: 265–269.

Wang K, Chalker V, Bermingham A.(2011): Mycoplasma pneumonia and Respiratory virus infections in children with persistent cough in England. A Retrospective analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 30: 1047-1051. 10.1097/INF.0b013e31822db5e2.

Vincent JM, Cherry JD, Nauschuetz WF et al (2000) Prolonged afebrile nonproductive cough illnesses in American Soldiers in Korea: a serological search for causation. Clin Infect Dis 30:534–539

Bonhoeffer J, Heininger U.(2007). Immunization: Perception and evidence. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 20:237.

Cortese MM, Baughman AL, Brown K, Srivastava P (2007) A “new age” in pertussis prevention new opportunities through adult vaccination. Am J Prev Med 32 (3) 177–185.

Rendi-Wagner P, Tobias J, Moerman L, Goren S, Bassal R, Green M, et al. The seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Israel – estimate of incidence of infection. Vaccine. 2010;28:3285–90.

Scott S, van der Sande M, Faye-Joof T, Mendy M, Sanneh B, Barry Jallow F, et al. (2015). Seroprevalence of pertussis in the Gambia: evidence for continued circulation of bordetella pertussis despite high vaccination rates. Pediatr Infect Dis J.;34:333–8.

Lee SY, Han SB, Bae EY, Kim JH, Kang JH, Park YJ, et al.(2014). Pertussis seroprevalence in korean adolescents and adults using anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin G. J Korean Med Sci.;29:652–6.

Recommended immunisations for pertussis [All EU countries]. (2016).European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

Conde-Glez C, Lazcano-Ponce E, Rojas R, DeAntonio R, Romano-Mazzotti L, Cervantes Y, et al .(2014). Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis in the Mexican population: a cross-sectional study. Epidemiol Infect.;142:706–13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.