METABOLIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES OF UROLITHIASIS AMONG AGE GROUP UNDER 18 YEARS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Jayan Stephen, Rajamohanan K

Abstract


Pediatric urolithiasis is an important kidney disorder encountered in clinical practice. There has been considerable regional variability in the reported incidences of urolithiasis. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the various aspects of metabolic and morphological abnormalities related to kidney stones in age group less than 18 years. A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with metabolic and morphological abnormalities portrayed in urolithiasis; most common among the above said abnormalities are; Obstruction of ureteropelvic junction, Ureteral strictures, Horseshoe kidneys, Malrotated kidneys, Narrow calyx neck, Calyx diverticula, Medullary sponge kidney disease, Invasive surgical procedures leading to scar tissue; Metabolic anomalies such as Hypercalciuria, Hypocitraturia, Hyperoxaluria, Hyperuricosuria, Hyperphosphaturia and Cystinuria. The results revealed varying descriptives of metabolic and morphological abnormalities in minor age groups. The body of available literature reveals the gravity of rarely encountered condition pediatric urolithiasis in various regions with debilitating metabolic and morphological abnormalities with idiopathic etiologies and known etiologies; which spearheads further research.


Keywords


Pediatric urolithiasis; metabolic abnormalities; morphological anomalies; Epidemiology

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References


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