Isolation and Characterization of Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Pathogens in Treated Waste Water from Hospital Sewage Treatment Plant

Dr. Sharvari A. Samant

Abstract


Introduction: Multiple Drug Resistant bacteria are often found in treated waste water from the hospital which leads to transfer of resistance to the bacteria in natural environment. Aims: The present study was aimed to know the spectrum of bacteria in Sewage Treatment Plants and resistance pattern of E. coli  and Enterococci as indicator organisms. Methodology: A total of 120 water samples were processed by standard microbiological procedures. Results: The spectrum of common bacteria isolated from the STPs wereE. coli (18.9%), Klebsiella (16.3%), Pseudomonas(15.7%), Citrobacter (14.8%), Enterococci (12.3%) Micrococci (11.6%)and Staphylococci (11.6%).  All the isolates (100%) were resistant to Ampicillin. More than 75% isolates of E.coliand more than 70% Enterococci were resistant to  more than four antibiotics. Conclusion:The present study highlights the importance of strict governance on functioning of STP and random microbiological testing to protect the environment.


Keywords


Sewage Treatment Plant, Drug Resistance, E. coli, Enterococci

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cha JM, Yang S., Carlson AH, Trace determination of β Lactam antibiotics in surface water and urban waste water using liquid chromatography combined with electroscopy tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography,2016;1115(1-2): 46-57.

Karthikeyan KG, Meyr MT. Occurrence f antibiotics in waste water treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA. Science of the Total Environment, 2006; 361 (1-3): 196-207.

Iwane T, Urase T, Yamamoto K. Possible impact of treated waste water discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water. Water Science and Technology.2001;43 (2): 91-99.

Kim S, Aga DS, Potential ecological and human health impacts of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria from waste water treatment plant. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental health, Part B,10 (8): 559-573.

Garcia S, Wade B, Baur C, Craig C, Nakaoka K, Lorowitz W. The effect of waste water treatment on antibiotic resistance in E. coli and Enterococcus spp. Water Environment Research. 2007;79(12): 2387-2395.

Caplin JL, Hanlon GW, Taylor HD. Presence of Vancomycin and Ampicillin Resistant Enterococcus faecium of epidemic clonal complex-17in wastewaters from the south coast of England. Environmental Microbiology. 2008; 10(4): 885-892.

Colomer-Lluch M, Imamovic L, Jofre J, Muniesa M: Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 4908-4911.

Henriques IS, Fonseca F, Alves A, Saavedra M J, Correia A. Occurrence and diversity of integrons and β-lactamase genes among ampicillin-resistant isolates from estuarine waters. Res. Microbiol. 2006;157: 938–947.

Zhao J, Zhu Y, Li Y, Mu X, You L, Xu C, et al. Coexistence of SFO-1 and NDM-1 β-lactamase genes and fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. FEMS Microbiol. 2015; Lett. 362: 1–7.

Bernhard AE, and Field, KG. A PCR assay to discriminate human and ruminant feces on the basis of host differences in Bacteroides–Prevotella genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2000; 66: 4571–4574.

Shanks OC, Atikovic E, Blackwood AD, Lu J, Noble R T, Santo Domingo J, et al. Quantitative PCR for detection and enumeration of genetic markers of bovine fecal pollution. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2008;74: 745–752.

Ervin JS, Van De Werfhorst LC, Murray J L, Holden PA. Microbial source tracking in a coastal California watershed reveals canines as controllable sources of fecal contamination. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014; 48: 9043–9052.

Tadesse DA, Zhao S, Tong E, Ayers S, Singh A, Bartholomew M J, et al. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Escherichia coli from humans and food animals, United States, 1950–2002. Emerg. Infect.Dis. , 2012; 18:741–749.

AW, Kirby Bauer WMM, Sherries JC,Jurek M, Antibiotic susceptibility testingby a standardized singlemethod. American Journal of ClinicalPathology.1966;45: 493-496.

Feleke M, Mengistu E,Yeshambel B,Walelegn W. Isolation and characterization of multiple drug resistance bacterial pathogens from waste water in hospital and non-hospital environments, Northwest Ethiopia BMC Research Notes2014, 2013; 7:215.

Chagas TP, Seki LM, Cury JC, Oliveira JA, Dávila AM, Silva DM, Asensi MD: Multiresistance, beta-lactamase-encoding genes and bacterial diversity in hospital wastewater in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. J Appl MIcrobiol. 2011; 111 (3):572-581.

Ekhaise FO, Omavwoya BP: Influence of hospital wastewater discharged from university of Benin teaching hospital (UBTH), Benin City on its receiving environment. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2008; 4 (4): 484-488.

Islam MJ, Uddin MS, Hakim MA, Das KK, Hasan MN: Role of untreated liquid hospital waste to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. J Innov Dev Strategy. 2008; 2 (2): 17-21.

Katouli M, Thompson, J.M. , Gündoğdu, A. Stratton, H.M. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Hospital Wastewaters and Sewage Treatment PlantsScience Forum and Stakeholder Engagement: Building Linkages, Collaboration and Science Quality Page 225-229.

Espigares E, Bueno A, Espigares M, Galvez R. Isolation of Salmonella serotypes in wastewater and effluent: Effect of treatment and potential risk. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2006; 209(1):103-107.

Martins da Costa P, Vaz-Pires P, Bernardo F. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated in inflow, effluent and sludge from municipal sewage water treatment plants. Water Research,2006; 40(8):1735-1740.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.