A PROSPECTIVE ONE YEAR STUDY OF FREQUENCY OF RH AND IRREGULAR ANTIBODIES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

Dr. E. Sabari Priya

Abstract


Abstract

Background   Maternal alloimmunization is triggered by previous incompatible transfusion or fetomaternal haemorrhage. In view of role played by antibodies other than anti-D in development of HDFN (Haemolytic disease of Newborn), it is necessary to screen all antenatal mothers for significant alloantibodies. This prospective study was conducted for 1 year among antenatal mothers.

Methods   Antibody screening was performed among antenatal mothers by Column Agglutination Technology, those mothers in whom antibody was positive were further subjected to antibody identification and followed by estimation of antibody titre

Results Prevalence of red cell antibodies among antenatal mothers was 0.8%. Anti-D was the most common antibody (50%) identified. Percentage of antibody positive in Rh negative mothers were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to Rh positive mothers

Conclusion Anti-D is still the commonest antibody detected among antenatal mothers. The occurrence of other irregular antibodies is very low. The scarcity of resources makes universal screening of all antenatal mothers for irregular antibodies not cost effective.


Keywords


Antenatal mothers, irregular antibodies, Rh positive

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


Kennedy M. Perinatal Issues in Transfusion Practice. In: Roback JD, Combs MR, Grossman BJ, Hillyer CD; editors. Technical Manual. 16th ed. Bethesda: American Association of Blood Banks; 2008: 625-637.

Queenan JT, Smith BD, Haber JM, Jeffrey J, Gadow HC. Irregular antibodies in the obstetric patient. Obstet Gynecol. 1969 Dec; 34(6):767–71.

Howard H, Martlew V, McFadyen I, Clarke C, Duguid J, Bromilow I, et al. Consequences for fetus and neonate of maternal red cell allo-immunisation. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1998 Jan;78(1):F62–66.

Chandrasekar A, Morris KG, Tubman TR, Tharma S, McClelland WM. The clinical outcome of non-RhD antibody affected pregnancies in Northern Ireland. Ulster Med J. 2001 Nov;70(2):89–94.

Gottvall T, Selbing A, Hildén JO. Evaluation of a new Swedish protocol for alloimmunization screening during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993 Aug;72(6):434–8.

Al-Ibrahim NA, AlSaeed AH. Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization among Saudi Pregnant Women in the United Province of Saudi Arabia. Kuwait Med J. 2008;40(2):116–23.

Koelewijn JM, Vrijkotte TGM, van der Schoot CE, Bonsel GJ, de Haas M. Effect of screening for red cell antibodies, other than anti-D, to detect hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a population study in the Netherlands. Transfusion. 2008 May;48(5):941–52.

Petz L, Garatty G. Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn. In: Petz, Garatty; editors. Immune Hemolytic Anemia. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2004: 517-539.

Moise KJ. Fetal anemia due to non-Rhesus-D red-cell alloimmunization. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008 Aug;13(4):207–14.

Gooch A, Parker J, Wray J, Qureshi H. Guideline for blood grouping and antibody testing in pregnancy. Transfus Med. 2007 Aug;17(4):252–62.

Pahuja S, Gupta SK, Pujani M, Jain M. The prevalence of irregular erythrocyte antibodies among antenatal women in Delhi. Blood Transfus. 2011 Oct;9(4):388–93.

Geifman-Holtzman O, Wojtowycz M, Kosmas E, Artal R. Female alloimmunization with antibodies known to cause hemolytic disease. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Feb;89(2):272–5.

Eder A, Manno C. Alloimmune Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn, In:Greer J,Foerster J,Rodgers G,ParaskevasF,GladerJ; editors. Wintrobe’s Clinical Haematology.12th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott, 2009:978-997.

Weinstein L. Irregular antibodies causing hemolytic disease of the newborn. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1976 Aug;31(8):581–91.

Bowman JM. The prevention of Rh immunization. Transfus Med Rev. 1988 Sep;2(3):129–50.

Solola A, Sibai B, Mason JM. Irregular antibodies: an assessment of routine prenatal screening. Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Jan;61(1):25–30.

Lurie S, Eliezer E, Piper I, Woliovitch I. Is antibody screening in Rh (D)-positive pregnant women necessary? J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 2003 Dec;14(6):404–6.

Adeniji AA, Fuller I, Dale T, Lindow SW. Should we continue screening rhesus D positive women for the development of atypical antibodies in late pregnancy? J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 2007 Jan;20(1):59–61.

Gottvall T, Filbey D. Alloimmunization in pregnancy during the years 1992-2005 in the Central West region of Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(8):843–8.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.