N Sujatha, Sinumol Thulaseedharan, Nadeera. A


End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is stage 5 of chronic kidney disease with GFR < 15 ml/minute.
OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of ocular involvement in ESRD in a tertiary care center in South India.
METHODS: Cross sectional observational study of 200 eyes of 100 ESRD patients.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: ESRD patients aged ≥ 18 years.
EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients with preexisting ocular diseases. Detailed ophthalmic examination and statistical analysis were done.
RESULTS: Mean age 56.15 ±11.47 years. M: F 3.5:1. 90% prevalence of ocular changes in patients with ESRD. 67% had cataract, 79% had
hypertensive retinopathy, 57% had diabetic retinopathy and 38% had macular edema.
DISCUSSION: Hypertensive retinopathy was the commonest ocular manifestation and cataract was the commonest cause of defective vision.
Irreversible loss of vision was due to diabetic retinopathy aggravated by ESRD.
CONCLUSION: This shows the need for detailed ophthalmic examination even in asymptomatic ESRD patients.


ESRD, Macular edema, Hypertensive retinopathy

Full Text:



Deva R, Alias MA, Colville D, Tow FK, Ooi QLet al. Vision-threatening retinal abnormalities in chronic kidney disease stages 3 to 5. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1866–1871

Eli A Friedman MD, Jeffrey S Berns MD, Jonathan Trobe MD.Eye disorders associated with chronic kidney disease: Medical supervision of CKD: June 5,2015

Smith C, Da Silva-Gane M, Chandna S, Warwicker P, Greenwood R, Farrington K. Choosing not to dialyse: Evaluation of planned non-dialytic management in a cohort of patients with end-stage renal failure. Nephron Clin Pract 95: c40–c46, 2003 [PubMed]

Grunwald JE, Alexander J, Ying GS, Maguire M, Daniel E, Whittock-Martin R, et al. Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130(9):1136–44.

U.S. Renal Data System: USRDS 2008 Annual Data Report: Atlas of chronic kidney disease and End stage renal disease in the united states. Bethesda, MD, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney, 2008.

Bajracharya L, Shah DN, Raut KB, et al. Ocular evaluation in patients with chronic renal failure -a hospital-based study. Nepal Med College J 2008;10(4): 209-14

Dahal P and Gouli S. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal. 2014;(10) 2:18-24.

Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1978; 172:523-6. manifestations in patients under chronic hemodialysis. AnnMed Interne (Paris) 1992; 143: 18-21.

RomanaVrabec, ZoranVatavuk, DraskoPavlovic, Antonio Sesar, SvjetlanaCala, KresimirMandic, KajoBucan. Ocular Findings in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis, Coll. Antropol.29.2005; 1:95-98.

Jacob J Mary, Shamjibhai S H, Goudinho S J. Ocular Findings in Diabetics and Hypertensives Undergoing Hemodialysis: The International Journal of Science & Techno ledge; vol-2 issue 7: 2014; 266-274.

Besharati M R, Rastegar A, Shoja M R, Maybodi M E. Prevalence of retinopathy in hypertensive patients. Saudi Med J.2006 Nov;27(11):1725-8.

Jitendra Kumar Panda, Gunsagar Das, SharmisthaBehera, D.N. Bhuyan, Dr. SitikanthaPradhan, Chita RarjanKar, LopamudraBeura. Necessity of ocular screening in patients undergoing heamodialysis-Hospital based cross sectional survey from tertiary health care centre, Western Orissa. Miscellaneous session:335.

Dandona L, Dandona R,Naduvilath T J,et al. Population based assessment of diabetic retinopathy in an urban population in southern India. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999; 83:937-940.

Kutty VR, Joseph A, Soman CR. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes in an urban settlement in Kerala, India. Ethn Health 1999; 4:231-9.

Cheung N, Wang JJ, Klein R, Couper DJ, Sharrett AR, Wong TY: Diabetic retinopathy and the risk of coronary heart disease. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Diabetes Care 30: 1742–1746, 2007

D Ji Wong Jung, Myung Hun Yoon, Seoung Woo Lee, HeeSeeung Chin. Graefes Arch ClinExpOphthalmol. DOI 10.1007/s00417-012-2032-6.


  • There are currently no refbacks.