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The Biology And Evolution Of The Human Hands

The human hands are regarded as the upper limb's most distal portion. One of the most amazing technical and evolutionary achievements, the human hands are accurate enough to handle some of the smallest objects in the world and strong enough to allow people to climb anything.

Author:Suleman Shah
Reviewer:Han Ju
Jan 19, 2023106 Shares1.7K Views
A hand is a multi-fingered, prehensile appendage that primates like humans, chimps, monkeys, and lemurs have at the end of their forearms. The koala is another vertebrate with two opposing thumbs on each hand, fingerprints that resemble those of people, and hands rather than paws on their front limbs.
The human handsare regarded as the upper limb's most distal portion. One of the most amazing technical and evolutionary achievements, the human hands are accurate enough to handle some of the smallest objects in the world and strong enough to allow people to climb anything.
The cornerstone of our body and a crucial component of living a happy existence are our skeleton feet.
The human foot has 26 foot bones, 33 joints, and more than 100 muscles, ligaments, and tendons, making it a tremendously complicated anatomy. The average person can bear the force, which may reach up to 100 tons, thanks to the unique construction of the foot.
Humans' hands and feet have a significant role to play in body language. The anatomy of the hand, ankle, and foot, as well as the bones of the human skeleton'shands and feet, will be covered in this article.

The Design Of The Human Hands

Four fingers plus a thumb make up the human hand's five digits, which are collectively referred to as "five fingers." The hand is made up of a number of distinct bones to which several muscles are linked.
Additionally, the hand possesses a variety of neurovascular structures that are in charge of drainage and innervation.
All of the range and mobility of the hand can be attributed in part to its intrinsic muscles. With the aid of the wrist, an anatomical structure that is both complicated and flexible, the muscles in the forearms project tendons toward the hand.
The fingers are the richest source of tactile feedback because they contain the densest region of nerve endings in the human body. Because the hands have the greatest positioning capacity of the body, the sense of touch is associated with them.
Each hand is mostly controlled by the opposite hemisphere of the brain, just like the eyes, feet, and legs, which are also paired organs.
Many mammals, including humans, have grabbing organs that resemble hands, such as paws and claws, although these are not generally regarded as grasping hands. The only truly gripping hands are in the mammalian group of primates.
The hands are at the distal end of each arm. Because of their lengthy toes and opposable hallux, which resembles a thumb more than anything else and allows them to use their feet as hands, all apes and monkeys are sometimes thought to have four hands.
Fine and large motor motions are just two of the many tasks that hands are capable of executing. Humans can pick up objects with their gross motor movements, but only with their fine motor movements are they capable of delicate activities like holding small objects.
Many anatomists have referred to the forelimb's appendage of digits as the "hand." One pound, or half a kilogram, is the maximum weight of a human hand.
Hand holding a drink
Hand holding a drink

Why Do Lines Appear On Palms?

According to evolutionary biologists, our hands' palms develop around 12 weeks during pregnancy in the womb, and babies are born with these lines already present.
However, a lot of people think that when a palmist reads someone's hand, their entire lifehistory, from birth to the present, can be revealed.
Sciencedoesn't back up the idea that the lines on a person's palm can tell the future, but you can learn more about palmistryby going to Joynumber.
Experts say that the palmar flexion creases, which are also called lines on the palm, make it easier for the skin on the hand to stretch and shrink.
According to scientists, they can also aid in the diagnosis of several medical disorders.
Our hands have lines, or, if you prefer, creases, which allow us to bend them easily. The creases also allow us to hold and grab onto objects with greater dexterity.
Although the thickness, frequency, and prominence of the three primary creases on our palms are determined by our genes, most people are born with them.
Rarely, a person is born with only one dominant crease running over the top of their hand, as opposed to the usual three.

Areas Of Human Hand

The four areas or portions of a hand are:

The Volar Or Palm

The palm lies superficially on the metacarpus in the middle of the front half of the hand. This is the base of the hand's body.


The digits that protrude from the hand's palm are known as fingers. Humans are equipped with fingers that allow them to grasp items of any size.

Back (Opisthenar)

The dorsal venous network, which is a webof veins, is easier to observe on the back of the hand.


The wrist serves as the point of connection between the arm and the hand, and it is only because of the wrist that hand movements are possible.


A hand has 19 bones in total. All fingers, with the exception of the thumb, have one proximal phalanx, one middle phalanx, and one distal phalanx. The palm of the hand has five metacarpals. The thumb lacks a middle phalanx but does have one proximal and one distal phalanx. A network of ligaments connects each bone in the hand.
Human hand
Human hand

People Also Ask

Why Is The Human Hand So Unique?

Why are human hands special? In relation to finger length, the human opposable thumb is longer than those of other primates. Humans can firmly hold and operate things of various shapes thanks to their lengthy thumbs and their ability to contact the other fingers with ease.

When Did Human Hands Evolve?

Over 70 million years ago, at the very beginning of the monkey ancestry tree, our hands began to evolve. Most likely, the ancestors of the primate hand were small animals that lived on the ground. Eventually, these animals moved up into the tree canopy.

How Powerful Is Human Hand?

Typically, men between the ages of 20 and 30 have the strongest muscles, while ladies over 75 have the weakest. The average grip strength of adults between the ages of 20 and 29 is 29 kg for women and 46 kg for males. By the time a person is between 60 and 69 years old, their weight has dropped to 39 kg or 23.5 kg.

Why Do Humans Have 5 Fingers And Not 6?

Quadrupedalism evolved around 380 million years ago, with six, seven, or even eight fingers depending on the species. It has been reduced to a five-finger structure as a result of evolution, ensuring flexibility and grasping power. We all have five fingers instead of six or four for this reason.


One of the most intricate and exquisite examples of natural engineering in the human body is the hand. It gives us a strong grasp but also makes it possible for us to precisely operate little objects. We differ from every other organism on the earth because of our adaptability.
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Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.
Han Ju

Han Ju

Hello! I'm Han Ju, the heart behind World Wide Journals. My life is a unique tapestry woven from the threads of news, spirituality, and science, enriched by melodies from my guitar. Raised amidst tales of the ancient and the arcane, I developed a keen eye for the stories that truly matter. Through my work, I seek to bridge the seen with the unseen, marrying the rigor of science with the depth of spirituality. Each article at World Wide Journals is a piece of this ongoing quest, blending analysis with personal reflection. Whether exploring quantum frontiers or strumming chords under the stars, my aim is to inspire and provoke thought, inviting you into a world where every discovery is a note in the grand symphony of existence. Welcome aboard this journey of insight and exploration, where curiosity leads and music guides.
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